时东陆:“残奥会”中文译名值得探讨

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进入专题: 残奥会  

时东陆 (进入专栏)  

  

  “残奥会” 我没有观赛,却总在想着为其更名。但是数月过去,仍然没有结果,索性写一篇小文,用来征集新名,同时探讨语言的进步与文明的含义。

  社会的进步有许多重要的标志,比如种族平等,人权女权,普及教育。但是这些都是上世纪的概念了。21世纪,时代发展的意义更注重对于个人的尊重。这种尊重早已超越社会广义的范畴,而更体现在对于每一个人内在心理的感觉和自尊。对于个性与个人的社会认可体现在许多方面。不同的社会和文化有其不同的理解。比如有些文化会更认同地位和等级。但是21世纪的社会进步却十分明显的表现在对任何个人的尊重,包括罪犯,流浪者的权益和福利。取消死刑是社会进步的另一表征。

  社会进步首先是理念的提出和社会的认可,然后实施于国家政策中。为残疾人提供公共场所的便利早已是发达社会的显著标志。但是语言的进步在发展上却并不平衡。语言对于每一个人的称谓首先标志了社会进步和文明的尺度。因为,语言作为文化的主要组成,表征了人们相互交往的一切,包括意识,感觉,心理。如果一个社会的文明首先来自对个人的尊重,那么这种尊重便通过语言具体的表现出来。

  在西方社会,尤其英语世界,以关注个人,尊重个性,体现人权为意识基础而发展现代语言从上世纪中就开始了。无论是对于种族的称谓还是对残疾人的医学名词定义都已经从国家,社会,科学界全面展开。任何对于个人那怕是丝毫的蔑视和侮辱名词,代词都正式更名。许多传统名词已例如官方禁查范围,不得公开使用。比如:“黑人” 一词已经不在报刊和媒体出现。

  对残疾人(本人在中文里无法找到其它词汇) 的称谓,已经在美国由相关部门(语言学界,医学界) 经过大量调查和研究,定出规范词汇,并编写字典,供人使用。例如传统的“瘸子,” “聋子,” “傻子,” 等词汇早已禁用。在词汇改革中,一条重要的标准就是不能在词汇上直接反映,表征个人身体上,心理上的缺陷。任何与残疾有关的语汇,词组,内容必须从语言,心理,文化的角度创造新的语言词汇。下面列出一些:

  

  传统词汇: 现代词汇

  

  Deaf and Dump (Mute):Hard of hearing and speech-disabled

  Blind people :Visually handicapped

  Mongolism: Down’s syndrome

  Dwarf :Little person

  Mad and Crazy:Emotional disability

  Retarded :Intellectually challenged

  

  “残奥会” 中的“残” 字直接反映了人的身体缺陷。与其相关的词“残废” 更是如此。因此,“残奥会”这个中文译名值得探讨(见下文Paralympic History) . 社会的发达首先是文化的进步。而文化的进步必须表征在语言上。从语言的进步上体现社会中每个人相互之间的敏感度与尊重度.中国历史文化悠久,语言丰富多彩,完全可以创造出温馨,合理,达意的新词汇。

  希望文学家们不仅能写出文采飞扬,字字珠玑的华章,也能创造出为那些社会竞争力受到阻碍人们的形容词,名词,和代词。

  希望医学家们,心理学家们不仅能发表顶级国际杂志论文,也能从科学出发,为那些在生活和社会中遭受比常人更为巨大挑战的人群定义新的医学术语。

  希望科学网的笔友们暂时放下您的博客大作,为“残奥会” 想出一个21世纪的新译名。

  

  Paralympic History

  

  Have you ever wondered if disabled people have any world-wide sporting events in which to compete? The Paralympics are Olympic Games specifically for people with disabilities.

  

  The International Paralympic Games are the Olympics for elite athletes with physical disabilities that do not enable them to compete in the regular International Olympic Games. The Paralympic Games are held every four years just like the Olympic Games. They are usually held in the same city and country as the Olympics. Athletes that compete in the Paralympic Games are divided into categories according to their disabilities. The word "paralympic" comes from the Latin word "para" which means "with" and "lympic" refers to the Olympic Games. Sir Ludwig Guttmann's idea to hold these Games did not start out as the International Paralympic Games. Guttmann was an English neurosurgeon. He worked at the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Ayslebury, England. He first organized the International Wheelchair Games to occur at the same time as the 1948 London Olympics.

  

  Soon after, Guttmann attempted to connect the wheelchair competition with the International Olympic Games. He finally succeeded in making the first official Paralympics in 1960. However, there were previous Games in 1952 that were not official and held along side the Olympic Games. Twenty-three nations participated along with four-hundred athletes. For the first few Paralympic Games, mostly wheelchair athletes participated. As time went on, athletes with different disabilities started competing. The Paralympic Games are held every four years just like the Olympic Games. They are usually held in the same city or country as the Olympics.

  

  The Summer Paralympic Games have been held in Rome, Italy in 1960, Tokyo, Japan in 1964; Tel Aviv, Israel in 1968; Heidelberg, Germany in 1972; Toronto, Canada in 1976; Arnhem, The Netherlands in 1980; New York, United States and Stoke Mandeville, England in 1984; Seoul, Korea in 1988; Barcelona, Spain in 1992; Atlanta, United States of America in 1996; and Sydney, Australia in 2000.

  

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