传喜法师:佛家眼中的经济危机

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进入专题: G20   中国经济   佛教   佛学  

传喜法师  


举世瞩目的2016中国杭州G20峰会召开在即。中国作为冉冉升起的经济大国将在国际社会的翘首期待中贡献智慧和力量,重振世界经济生机与活力,引领经济治理新方向。中国元素将大放异彩,为峰会取得丰硕成果注入“中国特色”。因此,G20峰会将是中国理念、中国主张的重要践行之地。


G20即20国集团是一个国际经济合作论坛,于1999年9月25日由八国集团(G8)的财长在华盛顿宣布成立,其宗旨在于1997亚洲金融危机发生后,增加发展国在全球经济活动中的发言权;1999年6月德国科隆,美日德法英意加俄8个工业国财长提出为防止类似亚洲金融风暴的重演,让更多国家就国际经济货币政策举行经常性对话,以利全球金融货币体系的稳定。会议旨在促进工业国和新兴市场国就国际经济、货币政策和金融体系重要问题开展建设开放性对话,以期寻求合作,推动国际金融体制改革并加强其框架的构建。中国是二十国集团的创始成员,参加了历次峰会,并于2005年作为主席国成功地举办了第七届二十国集团财长和央行行长会议。

2015年11月16日,国家主席习近平出席土耳其G20峰会并发表讲话,宣布中国将于今年9月4至5日在杭州举办二十国集团领导人第十一次峰会。峰会主题确定为“构建创新、活动、联动、包容的世界经济”。


回望人类历史,从各个文明相对自治的阶段逐渐进入全球化的时代,始于15世纪末的地理大发现,欧洲人以其坚船利炮在最初就居于领先地位。尽管17世纪欧洲知识分子被传说中的中国历史、艺术、哲学和政治所吸引,对中国儒家道德体系、科举制度、精美的手工业品等推崇备至,但是到了19世纪,欧洲在政治和经济上已在全球处于支配地位,西方文化自然升级为全世界的标准。在早期的中西方文明碰撞中,中国的科技、制度、文化都受到了质疑乃至否定。在救亡图存、民族复兴的各种思潮中,最为极端的思想甚至主张彻底否定中华传统文化,实行全盘西化。


进入20世纪,两次世界大战及局部冲突、恐怖活动时有发生,西方人对西方文明的全球化感到忧虑,而各种文明也开始文化自觉。找到适合自身民族的发展战略及重拾文化自信成为可能。


人类的希望聚焦在东方,人类比以往任何时候都更加需要同心协力、同舟共济,更加需要一个公正合理的和谐世界,更加需要寻找构建和谐世界的精神资源。随着工业化造成的资源匮乏、能源危机、环境恶化等问题日益凸显,人类也在反思西方现代化的发展趋向。西方人在上个世纪就提出了“中国的儒家文化和佛教的大乘思想”,可以帮助整个人类度过21世纪。


相对于主要依靠探索、占据和开发新资源以满足一小部分人不断膨胀的欲望的发展模式,中华文明所奉行的精耕细作、勤俭节约的生产生活方式的特殊魅力开始彰显,中华传统文化所推崇的天人合一、和谐相处的理念又重新为世人所重视。


2009年8月,传喜法师应请至欧洲六国文化交流,其间应《欧洲新报》之邀,亲笔撰写特约文章——《佛家眼中的经济危机》,并受邀在德国汉堡中国文化沙龙作《佛家眼中的经济危机》的主题演讲——时值,2007年4月2日,以新世纪金融公司申请破产保护为标志,美国次贷危机爆发;2008年7月起,危机已恶化成为全球性的问题,继而演变成为国际金融危机。


无论是马克思“资本主义经济危机具有明显的周期性”,还是西斯蒙第所断言的资本主义经济危机是永续不断的、永久性的经济危机,纵观经济发展史,经济危机的爆发,已不是第一次也不会是最后一次,目前已成为整个世界经济的发展常态和发展方向。



喜逢“2016中国杭州G20峰会”召开之际,再读传喜法师《佛家眼中的经济危机》一文,“改变人类的生活方式变成异常重要的国际议题┅┅现在人类前途的危机是由人心的物欲膨胀造成的,欲海狂澜之后,转而追求无限丰富的精神世界,不仅是解决危机的最好方法,也是人类自身成熟的文明新境界。安贫乐道、知足常乐的中国古训,在新的时代将成为人类修养的必修课。”


——特发此文, 其真知灼见,以飨有缘。


佛家眼中的经济危机


● 传喜法师


经济是成熟社会的产物,也是推动社会发展的深层动力之一。在当代极大丰富的商品面前,人们的物质欲望被最大限度地激发起来。人作为社会基本的生产者,应尽可能地克服内在惰性,进而提高生产效率,这样社会就会越来越富有,国家就会越来越强大,乃至国与国之间,往往因为经济因素,超越了文化、种族的巨大差异,人们友好往来、互通有无、互惠互利。当今全球经济一体化也是借助经济杠杆,简化复杂的心理噪音,理顺纷乱的国际秩序的重要手段。经济从微观上可以决定人的喜怒哀乐和生活节奏,宏观上可以调控社会发展的步伐,决定世界前途的兴衰。


在物质文明空前发达的今天,当我们沉醉在现代科技成果中,社会科学界和自然科学界的专家学者却对人类的前途忧心忡忡,人类的确面临着很严重的生存危机。如果按照现在的生活方式,仅二氧化碳排放造成的气候变暖,就足以使人类在一百年内从地球上消失。


改变人类的生活方式变成异常重要的国际议题,纵览人类历史上所有的文明,“采菊东篱下,悠然见南山”的东方人生观和离妄求真、法喜禅悦的佛家价值观给人类的继续生存找到了成功的出路。


现在人类前途的危机是由人心的物欲膨胀造成的,欲海狂澜之后,转而追求无限丰富的精神世界,不仅是解决危机的最好方法,也是人类自身成熟的文明新境界。安贫乐道、知足常乐的中国古训,在新的时代将成为人类修养的必修课。

当前危机四伏,虽然是经济自身规律偶然触发的,也应该是智者们挽回人类厄运的操纵杆,这样可让人类走上断头台的脚步慢下来,给人类寻求正确方向提供了更多的反思和机遇。这种经济现象不仅不是人类的危机,反而成为拯救人类真正危机的圣恩慈手。


经济杠杆对人类社会的作用不是万能的,大同的文化才能构建大同的世界,佛教的人生观、世界观不仅涵盖了各种文化精髓,也给当今世界乃至人类未来绘制了普世价值的蓝图。危机会促使更多人坐下来思考更深邃的问题,接受祖先在历史长河中沉淀下来的珍贵财富,这需要有识之士的正面引导!


先进的科技成果已把我们从繁重的劳动中解放出来,人类到底是在修身养性中得到重生,还是在物欲横流中奢靡地死去,这需要人们做出明智果断的抉择。


对“经济危机”这一现象我们应达成共识: 一味追求经济发展而无视其可怕后果,这是人类最肤浅的一种做法。人类的幸福不单是由物质决定的,而是一种内在精神的体验和感受。传统中医理论认为“人体阴阳失衡就会生病”,精神和物质不协调自然会造成人类社会的畸形发展。


今天的物质文明和精神文明的失衡已是显而易见,过度膨胀的欲望就是人类生存的陷阱。这的确值得整个人类反省。有时科技的发展只是内在欲望的外显,甚至是铤而走险的一种游戏,愚昧在阻碍着科学的发展,愚昧的科学发展又阻碍着人类文明的健康发展。


道德才是决定人类未来的关键因素。这个世界是我们每个人的大课堂,经济危机是我们当前应该思考和警醒的大课题。中国古代描绘的桃花源般的理想生活模式,其中并没有现代科技的繁荣,有的只是淡然忘世、躬耕自在的生活美景。这种现象很值得人类反思:地球已养育我们千百万年,在过度膨胀的人类欲望面前,我们还能悠然自在地把人类文明延续到千百万年之后吗?


当今世界的经济危机现象不仅仅是经济上的危机,而应该是改变人类生存危机,进而走向合理生存的重要转折点,也是东方文明复兴的重要契机。


在我们宝贵的百年人生中,再次寻求生命的真正价值,回眸祖辈的谆谆遗训,面对纷繁的境遇而正襟危坐,于交错的光影中自正性命,把短暂的生命安住于永恒的莲光中,才是对经济危机的正思惟。


阿弥陀佛!


附英文版:


The Economic Crisis in the Eyes of Buddhists


By Master Chuanxi on July 22nd, 2009  at Huiri Temple, Ningbo, China


Economic development is the product of a mature society and also one of the driving forces to promote a deeper development of a society. In a world with an abundant commodity, people's material desires are maximally stimulated. Individuals, who are the main producers of the society, should try their best to overcome their inertness and improve their productivity level. Thus, the society will become richer and richer while the country will become more and more powerful. Among and between nations, often because of economic factors, people will go beyond the cultural and racial differences, and do friendly exchanges for satisfying mutual needs and gaining mutual benefits. Today's globalization is achieved through economic integration where the sophisticated mental noises of people are simplified and the disorder of international relations is straightened out. From a micro perspective, economics can influence people in terms of their happiness, sorrows and rhythm of lives while viewing from a macro perspective, it also determines the pace of social development and poses strong impacts on the future of the world.


Today, with an unprecedented material civilization, we indulge in the fruits of modern science and technology, while the experts and scholars of social and natural sciences are heavy-hearted about the future of human beings. Indeed, we are facing a serious crisis of survival. If we continue our present way of living, the climate warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions, is enough to eliminate the entire human race on earth within a hundred years.


Therefore, it has become an extremely important international agenda to change the human way of living. Throughout the human history, all civilizations, including the oriental outlook on life, "picking chrysanthemum along the east hedgerow, I see Mount Nan," and the Buddhists value of seeking the truth in life and freeing ourselves from desires, have successfully provided a pathway for continuous survival.


Nowadays, the threat to human’s future comes from the expansion of human’s desire. After drowning in the ocean of desires, people begin the pursuit of limitless wealth of the spiritual world. This is not only the best way to solve the crisis, but also a new realm of civilization that derives from human’s own maturity. In this new era, the ancient Chinese teaching of living a peaceful and contented life has become a compulsory course to acquire.

Although the current economic crisis is triggered by the natural economic order, it should also be the wise men’s joystick to save mankind’s doom and slow down the humans’ footsteps to the guillotine. It provides the human beings with more opportunities to reflect on the right direction. Indeed, such economic phenomenon is not a crisis but the graceful hands to save us from the real human crisis.


The role of economics as a lever to human society is not a panacea. The world of Datong is constructed through Datong culture. The Buddhist view of life and its view of the world not only encompass the essence of all kinds of culture, but also cover current and future blueprints for mankind with universal values. The economic crisis has made more people sitting down and thinking the underlying issues at a deeper level, accepting the precious wealth of our ancestors that had settled down in the long river of history. This requires an expert with breadth of vision to provide positive guidance. Advanced scientific and technological achievements have been freeing us from the hard work, either to be reborn through self-cultivation or die in the chase of material desires, we must make a wise and decisive choice.


We should reach the consensus on the phenomenon of economic 'crisis'. Blindly pursuing economic development regardless of its terrible consequences is the most superficial approach of human beings. The happiness of mankind is not only derived through material things but can also come from an inner spiritual experience and feelings. The theory of traditional Chinese medicine tells us that the body imbalance of Yin and Yang will cause sickness, so the development of human society will go lopsided if the spiritual and material cannot be coordinated in a balanced way. In today's human society, the imbalance of material and spiritual civilization is obviously a big problem. The excessive expansion of human desire is a trap of our survival. The outbreak of the economic crisis is indeed worthy of the entire human reflection. Sometimes, the development of science and technology is an external display of our inner desire, and can even become a game of danger. Ignorance hinders the development of science while the ignorant development of science impedes the healthy development of human civilization. Ethics is the key factor determining the future of mankind. The world is a big lecture hall for everyone of us, the economic crisis is a big topic that we should think and watch out carefully. In the lifestyle of the ancient Chinese depiction of the Peach Garden, there was no affluence from modern technology. People just forgot the outside world and felt the beauty of life at ease. This phenomenon is worthy of reflection: the earth has raised us up for millions of years, in face of the excessive expansion of human desires, can we continue our civilization, freely and contently, for millions of years to come?


The phenomenon of crisis presented to us today is not merely an economic crisis, but a crucial turning point to change the crisis of human survival and move into a reasonable and healthy survival. It is also an important opportunity for the revival of oriental civilization. Let us seek true values again in our precious life of a hundred years. Let us look back to search for the earnest teachings of our ancestors. When facing the challenges in life, we will be sitting square calmly. Let our short lives rest still under the light shone from the eternal lotus and this is the positive thinking about the economic crisis.


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