阎克文:"经济与社会":恐怖的整容术及其他

选择字号:   本文共阅读 973 次 更新时间:2014-08-04 11:19:19

进入专题: 经济与社会  

阎克文 (进入专栏)  
但是同样地例如,用某些特定形式进行苦行阉割产生的某些类型的精神快感,根据速度、方式和明确性的不同反应的类型的区别等等),组成又一个不同的范畴。(上卷第42页)

   拙译:人终有一死,这实际上就是从婴儿时的无以自助到老年时的无以自助之间一种有机的生命循环,它自然会由于人的行为以这些事实为取向时采取的多样化方式而具有极大的社会学重要性。另一个缺少意义的事实范畴则是某些心理或精神物理现象,诸如疲劳、上瘾、记忆等等;还有在某些苦行禁欲条件下产生的某些典型的欣快状态;以及每个个人在作出反应时由于反应时间、准确程度和其他方式的不同而表现出的典型差异。

   (笔者按:韦伯这里一直在讨论行为的主观意义问题,他认为有些行为和现象是没有或缺少主观意义的,只能从客观的或间接的角度给予解释--比如"上瘾",结果中译本却改成了有意义的"训练",由此便开始了对"意义"问题的阉割过程,而且越往后阉割得越利索越彻底,读者如有足够耐心的话不妨自行验证,因为有白纸黑字在;另外,这段译文随后还捎带着"阉割"了人家禁欲者本来无需阉割的东西,最后又"阉割"了"欣快的"、"反应时间"等等一个心理学本科生也会熟知的概念,总之,整个看上去恍如韦伯当时正在梦游,而且满口臆语。)

   如果小段子尚不足以说明问题,最后再来看个大段子,抱歉让读者受累了:

   英译:The rise of Socialism at first meant the growing dominance of substantive natural law doctrines in the minds of the masses and even more in the minds of their theorists from among the intelligentsia. These substantive natural law doctrines could not, however, achieve practical influence over the administration of justice, simply because, before they had achieved a position to do so, they were already being disintegrated by the rapidly growing positivistic and relativistic-evolutionistic skepticism of the very same intellectual strata. Under the influence of this anti-metaphysical radicalism, the eschatological expectation of the masses sought support in prophecies rather than in postulates. Hence in the domain of the revolutionary theories of law, Natural law doctrines was destroyed by the evolutionary dogmatism of Marxism, while from the side of"official"learning it was annihilated partly by the Comtean evolutionary scheme and partly by the historicist theories of organic growth. A final contribution in the same direction was made by Realpolitik which, under the impact of modern power politics, had come to affect the treatment of public law. The method of the public law theories has been, and still is to a great extent, to point to certain apparent practical-political absurdities as the consequence of the juristic theory which they happen to posse; and then to treat the theory as effectively disposed of forever after. This method is not only directly opposed to that of formal law, but it also contains nothing of substantive natural law. In the main, Continental jurisprudence, even up to the most recent times, proceeds on the basis of the largely unchallenged axiom of the logical"closedness"of the positive law. It seems for the first time to have been expressly stated by Bentham as a protest against the case law rut and the irrationality of the common law. It is indirectly supported by all those tendencies which reject all transcendental law, especially natural law, including, to this extent, historical school. While it would hardly seem possible to eradicate completely from legal practice all the latent influence of unacknowledged axiom of natural law, for a variety of reasons the axiom of natural law have been deeply discredited. The conflict between the axioms of substantive and formal natural law is insoluble. Evolutionist theories have been at work in various forms. All metajuristic axioms in general have been subject to ever continuing disintegration and relativization. In consequence of both juridical rationalism and modern intellectual skepticism in general, the axioms of natural law have lost all capacity to provide the fundamental basis of a legal system. Compared with firm beliefs in the positive religiously revealed character of a legal norm or in the inviolable sacredness of an age-old tradition, even the most convincing norms arrived at by abstraction seem to be too subtle to serve as the bases of a legal system. Consequently, legal positivism has, at least for the time being, advanced irresistibly. The disappearance of the old natural law conceptions has destroyed all possibility of providing the law with a metaphysical dignity by virtue of its immanent qualities. In the great majority of its most important provisions, it has been unmasked all too visibly, indeed, as the product or the technical means of a compromise between conflicting interests.(p.873-875)

中译:社会主义的崛起,起初虽然意味着在群众的头脑中,特别是在属于知识分子阶层的理论家的头脑中,实质的自然法教条日益占统治地位。但是,这些实质的自然法教条却未能对司法宣判产生直接的影响,因为它们在从根本上具有这种能力之前,就已经被同样是这些知识分子阶层的日益迅速扩散的实证主义的和相对论-进化论的怀疑所瓦解。在这种反形而上学的激进主义的影响下,群众的来世论的期望在先知预言上,而不是在要求上去寻找依据。因此,在革命的法学理论的基础上,自然法学说被马克思主义的进化论的教条主义所破坏。在官方的科学研究方面,它部分地被孔德的发展模式,部分地被历史主义的"有机的"发展定理所剿灭。"现实政治"的特征也具有同样的作用,在现代实力政治的影响下,首先在对待公法上,具有"现实政治"色彩。政论界中理论家的方法论,在极大的程度上历来如此,今天更是如此:即它把从一种被反对的法学的构想中,引申出在实际的政治中似乎是荒谬的结论,描写的是这种构想的后果,并因此把它看作是已经万事大吉了的。这种方法同形式的自然法的方法是直接背道而驰的。另一方面,它本身也没有包含着任何实质的自然法的东西。而且大陆的法学研究采用成文法的关于逻辑的"完整性"的公理,这种公理直到最近基本上未受过挑战。首先明确宣布这个公理的大概是边沁,抗议习惯法的先例做法和非理性。它也间接地受到所有那些拒绝整个超现行法的法、特别是拒绝自然法的派别的支持,就此而言,也受到历史学派的支持。诚然,要彻底消除自然法的、未被承认的各种公理对法律事务实践的潜在影响是困难的。然而,不仅由于形式的和实质的自然法公理相互之间的不可调和的斗争立场,和不仅由于进化理论的不同形式的工作,而且也由于所有法学领域之外的公理的日益瓦解和相对化,部分是由于法学理性主义本身引起的,部分是由于一般的现代唯智论的怀疑引起的,因此,自然法的公理论今天陷入深深的威信扫地的地步。不管怎么说,它丧失了作为一种法的基础的承载能力。倘若与对现行的宗教的默示或者对一种原始的传统牢不可破的神圣性的坚信不移作比较,那么对于这一成就来说,哪怕是最令人笃信不渝的、通过抽象获得的准则,也是太微不足道了。因此,法的实证主义暂时处于锐不可挡的挺进之中。旧的自然法观念的消失,(点击此处阅读下一页)

进入 阎克文 的专栏     进入专题: 经济与社会  

本文责编:jiangxl
发信站:爱思想(http://www.aisixiang.com),栏目:天益学术 > 政治学 > 政治学专栏
本文链接:http://www.aisixiang.com/data/76792.html
文章来源:作者授权爱思想发布,转载请注明出处(http://www.aisixiang.com)。

1 推荐

在方框中输入电子邮件地址,多个邮件之间用半角逗号(,)分隔。

爱思想(aisixiang.com)网站为公益纯学术网站,旨在推动学术繁荣、塑造社会精神。
凡本网首发及经作者授权但非首发的所有作品,版权归作者本人所有。网络转载请注明作者、出处并保持完整,纸媒转载请经本网或作者本人书面授权。
凡本网注明“来源:XXX(非爱思想网)”的作品,均转载自其它媒体,转载目的在于分享信息、助推思想传播,并不代表本网赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。若作者或版权人不愿被使用,请来函指出,本网即予改正。
Powered by aisixiang.com Copyright © 2021 by aisixiang.com All Rights Reserved 爱思想 京ICP备12007865-1号 京公网安备11010602120014号.
工业和信息化部备案管理系统