张向荣:正义与发展党执政以来土耳其的巴尔干政策新变化

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进入专题: 土耳其外交     巴尔干     正义与发展党  

张向荣  

  

   (12)Vracic Alida,"Turkey's Role in the Western Balkans",Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik Research Paper,No.11,2016,pp.1-34.

  

   (13)土耳其高度重视与罗马尼亚、保加利亚等已经加入欧盟的巴尔干国家的关系,在巴尔干的政策也始终面临如何处理与希腊关系的问题。从土耳其官方表述来看,它在巴尔干的政策一直着眼于整个巴尔干半岛,在国际场合也一贯强调巴尔干地区的同一性和整体性。

  

   (14)Darko Tanaskovic,"Turkey and the Balkans:Old Traditions,New Aspirations",Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs,Vol.6,No.2,2015,p.53.

  

   (15)F.S.Lamabee and I.O.Lesser,Turkish Foreign Policy in the Age of Uncertainly,Santa Monica,Rand,2003,p.94.

  

   (16)Yohannes Tesfa,"Easing Back In:the Balkans' Re-Introduction to Turkey",Bilgesam,April 4,2011,http://www.bilgesamorg/en/incele/1875/-easing-back-in-the-balkans--re-introduction-to-turkey,2020-08-25.

  

   (17)Bedrudin Brljavac,"Turkish Accession to the European Union through the Balkan Doors:In the Style of Great Ower?",Journal of Economic and Political Transition,Vol.48,No.3,2011,p.27.

  

   (18)李秉忠、涂斌:《埃尔多安时代土耳其外交的转型及其限度》,载《西亚非洲》2018年第2期,第105页。

  

   (19)王洪起:《美国如何维持在巴尔干地区的影响力》,载《世界知识》2017年第7期,第52页。

  

   (20)俄格战争亦称南奥塞梯战争,是2008年8月在格鲁吉亚境内发生的一场战争。交战一方为格鲁吉亚政府军,另一方为单方面宣布独立的南奥塞梯及其支持者阿布哈兹和俄罗斯。

  

   (21)参见土耳其外交部网站:http://www.mfagov.tr/relations-with-the-balkan-region.enmfa,2019-12-03。

  

   (22)Bülent Aras,"Turkey and the Balkans:New Policy in a Changing Regional Environment",Analysis,The German Marshall Fund of the United States,October 31,2012,p.3.

  

   (23)Judit Balázs,"Geopolitical Priorities-Turkey and the Balkans",Regional and Business Studies,Vol.7,No.2,2015,p.25.

  

   (24)巴尔干地区有100多万土耳其人,其中保加利亚76万人、希腊12万人、马其顿7.8万人、科索沃4万人和罗马尼亚7万人。See Bülent ener,"The Main Structural Factors that Make the Balkans Important for Turkish Foreign Policy",Codrul Cosminului,Vol.25,No.2,2019,p.382.

  

   (25)土耳其有800万国民带有阿尔巴尼亚血统,其中400万人仍然在讲阿尔巴尼亚语。

  

   (26)关于新奥斯曼主义的含义及影响,参见张向荣:《“新奥斯曼主义”的历史嬗变与影响》,载《新疆社会科学》2018年第1期,第108-118页。

  

   (27)Davutoclu,Stratejik Derinlik:Türkiye' nin Uluslararasi Konumu,Istanbul:Küre Yaylnlarl,2001,p.122.

  

   (28)Ibid.,p.317.

  

   (29)Stojanovic,"Turkey Uses Economic Clout to Gain Balkan Foothol",The Washington Post,March 14,2011.

  

   (30)Sunnie Rucker-Chang,"The Turkish Connection:Neo-Ottoman Influence in Post-Dayton Bosnia",Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs,Vol.34,No.2,2014,p.157.

  

   (31)Yohannes Tesfa,op.cit.

  

   (32)"Erdogan Is Making the Ottoman Empire Great Again",Foreign Policy,June 22,2018,https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/06/22/erdogan-is-making-the-ottoman-empire-great-again,2020-03-26.

  

   (33)2010年以后,盖洛普没有在巴尔干组织类似的民意测验。

  

   (34)Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Republic of Turkey,"Policy of Zero Problems with Our Neighbors",http://www.mfagov.tr/sub.en.mfa?91541430-fldd-41d0-b6eb-ela6cc3e556b,2019-11-20.

  

   (35)Ronald H.Linden & Yasemin Irepoglu,"Turkey and the Balkans:New Forms of Political Community?",Turkish Studies,Vol.14,No.2,2013,p.245.

  

   (36)"Turkey's Erdogan Pledges Investment in Bosnia Ahead of Rally”,Reuters,May 20,2018,https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bosnia-turkey/turkeys-erdogan-pledges-investment-in-bosnia-ahead-of-rally-idUSKCN11L0K4,2020-02-10.

  

   (37)"Erdogan in the Balkans:A Neo-Ottoman Quest?",Al Jazeera,October 11,2017,https://www.aljazeeracom/indepth/opinion/erdogan-balkans-neo-ottoman-quest,2019-11-20.

  

   (38)Ibid.

  

   (39)Kouskouvelis Ilias,"The Problem with Turkey's Zero Problems",Middle East Quarterly,Vol.20,No.1,2013,p.22.

  

   (40)参见土耳其外交部网站:http://www.mfagov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-greece.en.mfa,2019-11-20。

  

   (41)参见土耳其统计局网站:http://www.tuik.gov.tr,2019-04-25。

  

   (42)Ahmet Davutoglu,"Zero Problems in a New Era",Foreign Policy,March 21,2013,http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/03/21/zero_problems_in_a_new_era_turkey,2019-11-20.

  

   (43)"New Beginnings in the Balkans?",ISN ETH Zurich,May 21,2010,http://isnethzch/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail//?id=116496,2019-11-20.

  

   (44)Davutoglu,"Turkey's Mediation:Critical Reflections from the Field",Middle East Policy,Vol.20,No.1,2013,p.90.

  

   (45)参见土耳其外交部网站:http://www.mfagov.tr/resolution-of-conflicts-and-mediation.en.mfa,2019-11-20。

  

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