陈静静:美军统治琉球群岛的历史考察

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进入专题: 美军   琉球群岛  

陈静静  
Okinawa Reversion,Ph.DDissertation from Georgetown University,1981,p.91.

   16Memorandum by theAssistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs(Robertson)to the Secretaryof State,8 January 1954.FRUS,1952-1954,Vol.14,p.1583.

   17ArnoldG.Fisch,Jr.,Military Government in the Ryukyu Islands1945-1950,Washington,D.C.:Center of Military History U-nited StatesArmy,1998,p.5.

   18Civil AdministrationProclamation No.13,February 29,1952,Subject:Establishment of Government of theRyukyu Islands.以上文件见ArnoldG.Fisch,Jr,Military Government in the Ryukyu Islands1945-1950,Washington,D.C.:Center of Military History United States Army,1998,pp.317-319。

   19Civil AdministrationOrdinance No.68,February 29,1952,Subject:Provisions of the Government of theRyukyu Islands.以上文件见ArnoldG.Fisch,Jr,Military Government in the Ryukyu Islands1945-1950,Washington,D.C.:Center of Military History U-nited StatesArmy,1998,pp.320-329。

   20Draft Directive forUnited States Civil States Administration of the Ryukyu Islands,11 January1954,FRUS,1952-1954,vol.14,p.1588.

   21Memorandum from theAssistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs(Robertson)to the Secretaryof State,Washington,January 7,1957,FRUS,1955-1957,Vol.23,Part 1,Japan,Document106,pp.240-241;Memorandum of a Conversation,Department of State,Washington,May15,1957,FRUS,1955-1957,Vol.23,Part 1,Japan,Document 135,pp.289-290;Memorandumfrom the Joint Chiefs of Staff to Secretary of Defense McElroy,May1,1958,FRUS,1958-1960,Vol.18,Japan;Korea,p.31.

   22Memorandum from theJoint Chiefs of Staff to Secretary of Defense McElroy,May1,1958,FRUS,1958-1960,Vol.18,Japan;Korea,p.31.

   23Draft Directive forUnited States Civil States Administration of the Ryukyu Islands,11 January1954,FRUS,1952-1954,vol.14,p.1587.

   24艾森豪威尔政府期间,美国部署在太平洋沿岸的1600件核武器中的约800件储藏在冲绳的嘉首纳空军基地。Robert S.Norris,William M.Arkin and William Burr,“Where they were,”The bulletin of the atomic scientists,55:6(November/December1999),pp.26-35,http://www.bullatomsci.org/issues/1999/nd99/nd99norris.html.

   25Kensei Yoshida,DemocracyBetrayed:Okinawa under U.S.Occupation,Press:Center for East Asian StudiesWestern Washington,Bellingham,Washington,2001,p.74.

   261954年3月,美军公开宣布一次性支付军用地租金制度,该政策的宣布立即引起琉球所有土地所有者的抗议,持续4年之久的土地斗争由此开始,在此基础上琉球全岛掀起了反基地和反美运动。

   27琉球和日本的“回归”呼声是指,1945年美军占领琉球群岛并在岛内实行殖民统治,岛内民众对美军的不满情绪越来越高,部分人士为了摆脱美军的统治掀起了“回到”日本的呼声,日本也存在希望琉球“回到”日本的呼声。

   28高级专员在这里用来指在琉球的最高管理者。根据牛津词典解释,高级专员这种头衔对于一个殖民地或是附属地的行政长官来说是常见的,或者用于指英联邦国家中的英国外交使团的长官。美国预算局的哈罗德·赛德曼(HaroldSeidman)博士在1953年3月访问冲绳,他建议将长官改为高级专员。他认为,长官一般是指领地的最高官员,但琉球不是美国的领土。参见Gordon Warner,The Okinawa reversionstory:war,Peace,Occupation,Reversion,Naha:The Executive Link,1997,p.93。

   29Executive Order 10713,June 5,1957,Box 5,Records of theU.S.Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands(USCAR),RG260 Records of UnitedStates Occupation Headquarters,World War II.N.A.

   30Executive order 10713,June 5,1957,Box 5,Records of theU.S.Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands(USCAR),RG260 Records of UnitedStates Occupation Headquarters,World War II.N.A.

   31Assistant Under Secretary for Eastern Affairs to theAssistant Secretary of Defense,11 December,FRUS,1955-1957,vol.23,pp.544-546.

   32Telegram from the Consulate General at Naha to theDepartment of State Naha,December 15,1957,FRUS,1955-1957,Vol.23,Part1,Japan,p.548.

   331960年美日签订《新安全条约》,日本首相岸信介对日美之间的合作关系感到满意,他设想日本人也将会对此满意。然而,条约签订后,日本许多学生、劳工、知识分子强烈反对修改后的条约并要求将其废除。但岸信介不顾国内舆论的强烈反对和大规模的示威运动,在社会党缺席的情况下使议会强行通过该条约。这激怒了日本成千上万的民众,他们走上街头呼喊“推翻岸政府,解散议会,杀了岸信介”,这种示威运动持续了一个多月,被称为“安保斗争”。

   34Price Act是关于美国向琉球提供经济援助上限的法案。该法案在1960年7月,由伊利诺斯州代表梅尔文·普赖斯(MelvinPrice)提出并在国会通过,当时设定的美国每年向琉球提供援助的上限为600万美元。

   35National Security Action MemorandumNo.133,FRUS,1961-1963,Vol.22,China;Korea;Japan,pp.723-724.

   36The White House,Statement by the President,March19,1962,Box 5,Records of the U.S.Civil Administration of the RyukyuIslands(USCAR),RG 260 Records of the United States OccupationHeadquarters,World War II,N.A.

   37“Statement by the President upon Signing Order Relatingto the Administration of the Ryukyu Islands,”Mar.19,1962,John Kennedy,Public Papers of thePresident:John Kennedy,1962,pp.247-248.

   38Nicholas Evan Sarantakes,Keystone:The American Occupationof Okinawa and U.S.-Japanese Relations,Texas:Texas A&M U-niversityPress,2000,p.117.

   39Kensei Yoshida,Democracy Betrayed:Okinawa underU.S.Occupation,Press:Center for East Asian Studies Western Washington,Bellingham,Washington,2001,p.125.

   40Nicholas Evan Sarantakes,Keystone:The American Occupationof Okinawa and U.S.-Japanese Relations,Texas:Texas A&M U-niversityPress,2000,p.127.

   41Kensei Yoshida,Democracy Betrayed:Okinawa underU.S.Occupation,Press:Center for East Asian Studies WesternWashington,Bellingham,Washington,2001,p.126.

42Kensei Yoshida,(点击此处阅读下一页)

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