李怀印:中国的“元实力”

——社会人文视角下的国家综合竞争优势分析
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李怀印  
” Research in Population Economics, 2.

   Smith, Adam, 1994, The Wealth of Nations, New York: Random House.

   Stephen, Knowles, 1997, “Which Level of Schooling Has the Greatest Economic Impact on Output?” Applied Economics Letters, 4.

   Tsutsui, William and Stefano Mazzotta, 2014, “The Bubble Economy and the Lost Decade: Learning from the Japanese Economic Experience,” Journal of Global Initiatives, 9(1).

   Tsuya, Noriko, 2014, “The Impacts of Population Decline in Japan: Demographic Prospects and Policy Implications,” Reexamining Japan in Global Context , https://www.suntory.com/sfnd/jgc/forum/005/pdf/005_tsuya.pdf.

   Wallerstein, Immanuel, 2011, The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, Berkeley: University of California Press.

   Weber, Max, 1992, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, New York: Routledge.

   World Bank, 1982, World Development Report, 1982, New York: Oxford University Press.

   World Intellectual Property Organization, 2016, World Intellectual Property Indicators 2016, http://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_941_2016.pdf.

   Yasin, Evgeny, 2003, “Economic Modernization and System of Values,” https://www.hse.ru/data/2010/11/24/1209962398/Values_Yasin.pdf.

  

   【注释】

   ①Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, “Military Expenditure by Country as Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2003-2016,”  https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/Milex-share-of-GDP.pdf.

   ②Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, “Military Expenditure by Country, in  constant (2015) US$ m., 2007-2016,” https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/Milex-constant-2015-USD.pdf.

   ③Wikipedia, “List of Countries by Number of Military and Paramilitary Personnel,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_number_of_military_and_paramilitary_personnel.

   ④同注③。

   ⑤Wikipedia, “List of Countries by Government Budget,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_government_budget.

   ⑥Wikipedia, “List of Countries Ranked by Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Level,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_ranked_by_ethnic_and_cultural_diversity_level.

   ⑦Gallup International, “Losing Our Religion? Two Thirds of People Still Claim to Be Religious,” http://gallup-international.bg/en/Publications/2015/223-Losing-Our-Religion-Two-Thirds-of-People-Still-Claim-to-Be-Religious.

   ⑧World Values Survey, “World Values Survey (2010-2014),” http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV6.jsp.

   ⑨James A. Dorn, “Adam Smith in China: The Momentum for Market Liberalization in China is Strong,” https://fee.org/articles/adam-smith-in-china/; The Economist, “Capitalism’s Waning Popularity: Market of Ideas,” https://www.economist.com/node/18527446.

   ⑩Bret Silverberg, “Survey: China Leads World as Most ‘Industrious’ Nation,” https://www.monster.com/career-advice/article/survey-china-leads-world-industrious-nations.

   11Wikipedia, “List of Minimum Annual Leave by Country,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_minimum_annual_leave_by_country.

   12U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Charting International Labor Comparisons (September 2012), https://www.bls.gov/fls/chartbook/2012/section2.pdf.

   13各个国家和地区的最新IQ测试显示,在东亚,中国香港地区和新加坡为108,韩国为106,中国大陆和日本均为105,中国台湾地区为104(IQ Research, “Average IQ by Country,” https://iq-research.info)。

   14Index Mundi, “School Enrollment, Tertiary (% gross) -Country Ranking,” https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/indicators/SE.TER.ENRR/rankings.

   15Niall McCarthy, “The Countries with the Most STEM Graduates,” https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2017/02/02/the-countries-with-the-most-stem-graduates-infographic/#31a1c037268a.

   16Glenn Leibowitz, “Apple CEO Tim Cook: This Is the Number 1 Reason We Make iPhones in China (it’s Not What You Think),” https://www.inc.com/glenn-leibowitz/apple-ceo-tim-cook-this-is-number-1-reason-we-make-iphones-in-china-its-not-what-you-think.html.

   17魏城:《中国人的智商全球最高?》,FT中文网,http://www.ftchinese.com/story/001003808?full=y。

   18Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, News Release, December 19, 2012,https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/ichcc.pdf.

  

   【作者简介】 李怀印:美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校历史系(Li Huaiyin, Department of History, The University of Texas at Austin)

  

  

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