吴旭:“公众空间”的特征及其在三种媒介形态上的比较

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吴旭 (进入专栏)  

  ” New Media & Society, 6 no. 6(2004), 781–802.

  32. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 33.

  33. K. C. Ho, R. Kluver, and C. C. Y. Kenneth, “Asia Encounters the Internet,” In eds. K. C. Ho, R. Kluver, and K. C. C. Yang, Asia.com: Asia Encounters the Internet (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 1–20; N. Hachigian and L. Wu, The Information Revolution in Asia (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003); A. G. Wilhelm, Democracy in the Digital Age: Challenges to Political Life in Cyberspace (London: Routledge, 2000).

  34. R. McChesney, Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy (New York: Seven Stories Press, 1997).

  35. Habermas, “Further Reflections,” 437.

  36. Wilhelm, Democracy in the Digital Age; Xu Wu, “Red Net over China: China’s New Online Media Order and Its Implications,” Asian Journal of Communication 15 no.2 (2005), 215–227.

  37. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 160.

  38. Z. Papacharissi, “The Virtual Sphere: The Internet as a Public Sphere,” New Media & Society 14 no.1 (2002), 9–27; A. G. Wilhelm, “Virtual Sounding Boards: How Deliberative Is Online Political Discussion?” in eds. Barry Hague and Brian Loader, Digital Democracy: Discourse and Decision Making in the Information Age (London: Routledge, 1999), 154–178.

  39. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere.

  40. Spiro Kiousis, “Interactivity: A Concept Explication,” New Media & Society 4 no.3 (2002), 355–383.

  41. Barry Hague and Brian Loader, eds. Digital democracy: Discourse and decision making in the information age (London: Routledge, 1999); Jim Hall, Online Journalism: A Critical Primer (London: Plato Press, 2001).

  42. John Locke, “Second Treatise,” in Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960).

  43. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere.

  44. Hall, Online Journalism.

  45. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 35.

  46. Wallace, The Psychology of the Internet.

  47. H. Nissenbaum, “The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age,” The Information Society 15 (1999), 141–144; M. Harris, G. V. Hoye and F. Lievens, “Privacy and Attitude towards Internet-based Selection System: A Cross-cultural Comparison” International Journal of Selection and Assessment 11 no. 2/3 (2003), 230–236.

  48. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 176.

  49. T. Haas, “The Public Sphere as a Sphere of Publics: Rethinking Habermas’s Theory of the Public Sphere,” Journal of Communication 54 no.1 (2004), 178–184.

  50. M. J. Dutta-Bergman, “Access to the Internet in the Context of Community Participation and Community Satisfaction,” New Media & Society 7 no.1 (2005), 89–109; R. Hurwitz, “Who Needs Politics? Who Needs People? The Ironies of Democracy in Cyberspace,” Contemporary Sociology 28 no.6 (1999), 655–61; H. K. Klein, “Tocqueville in Cyberspace: Using the Internet for Citizen Associations,” The Information Society 15 (1999), 213–20; D. Tambini, “New Media and Democracy: The Civic Networking Movement,” New Media and Society 1 no. 3 (1999), 305–29.

  51. B. Wellman, A. Q. Haase, J. Witte, and K. Hampton, “Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital?” American Behavioral Scientist 45 no.3 (2001), 436–455.

  52. Zhang K. and Hao X. “The Internet and the Ethnic Press: A Study of Electronic Chinese Publications,” The Information Society 15(1999), 21–30.

  53. L. Dahlberg, “The Internet and Democratic Discourse: Exploring the Prospects of Online Deliberative Forums Extending the Public Sphere,” Information, Communication and Society 4 no.4 (2001), 615–633; M. S. Heng and A. Moor, “From Habermas’s Communicative Theory to Practice on the Internet,” Information Systems Journal 13 no.4 (2003), 331–352; Z. Papacharissi, “The virtual Sphere: The Internet as a Public Sphere,” New Media & Society 14 no.1 (2002)., 9–27.

  54. P. Watzlawick, H. B. Janet, and D. J. Don, Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interaction Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes (New York: Norton, 1967), 48.

  55. Geoff Eley, “Nations, Publics, and Political Cultures”.

  56. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 453.

  57. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (New York: Knopf, 1835/1955), 118.

  

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