吴旭:“公众空间”的特征及其在三种媒介形态上的比较

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进入专题: 公共空间   纸质印刷媒体公共空间   广播媒体公共空间   网络公共空间  

吴旭 (进入专栏)  

  还显得有些理想化和夸大的话,在不远的将来,“网络公共空间”也许能将他的很多“完美臆想”变为现实。不管哈贝马斯当初所提出的这一构想显得多么不实际,他的关于人类传播的基本理念,过去是,现在是,将来更应该是值得传播学学者不断追索的目标。

  1835年,年轻的法国政治学者托克维尔在他的经典政治学著作《美国的民主》中曾经总结到:在所有那些支配人类社会的法则中,有一条似乎比其他更精准也更简明。如果人们想要保持文明的延续,或者试图变得更文明,那么其相互沟通联系的技巧,必须与其提高民众平等地位同样的速率而提高和改善。[57]

  如果这个论断在早期印刷媒体流行的1835年是至理名言的话,那么在一个被网络信息技术渗透得无孔不入的现代社会来说,这段话也就更有昭示意义了。

  

  

  

  索引:

  

  1. 相关资料,请参阅Geoff Eley, “Nations, Publics, and Political Cultures: Placing Habermas in the Nineteenth Century,” In Habermas and the Public Sphere, ed. C. Calhoun (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), 289–339; Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Thomas Burger (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989; originally published in 1962), 1–88; Jürgen Habermas, “Further Reflections on the Public Sphere,” In Habermas and the Public Sphere, ed. C. Calhoun (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), 421–461; Lloyd Kramer, “Habermas, History and Critical Theory,” In Habermas and the Public Sphere, ed. C. Calhoun (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), 236–258; Andrej Pinter, “Public Sphere and History: Historians’ Response to Habermas on the ‘Worth’ of the Past,” Journal of Communication Inquiry 28, no.3 (2004): 217–232.

  2. See for examples, R. J. Bernstein, ed. Habermas and Modernity (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985); M. Cooke, Language and Reason: A Study of Habermas’s Pragmatics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994); C. Calhoun, ed. Habermas and the Public Sphere (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press); Alexandra Halasz, The Marketplace of Print: Pamphlets and the Public Sphere in Early Modern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997); Pask Kevin, “The Bourgeois Public Sphere and the Concept of Literature,” Criticism 46, no. 2 (2004): 241–256.

  3. Calhoun, Habermas and the Public Sphere, 2–11.

  4. Barry N. Hague, and Brian D. Loader, eds. Digital Democracy: Discourse and Decision Making in the Information Age (London & New York: Routledge, 1999); Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995); A. G. Wilhelm, Democracy in the Digital Age: Challenges to Political Life in Cyberspace (London: Routledge, 2000).

  5. Though no explicit record showing that Gutenberg’s movable type printing technique was based on the Chinese similar invention developed some 400 years ago, most science historians believed that considering the increasing interconnections between the East and West in the previous times, Gutenberg could have borrowed some of the principal elements of the Chinese model and modified it to a much advanced type. See for references, Shelton A. Gunaratne, “Paper, Printing and the Printing Press: A Horizontally Integrative Macrohistory Analysis,” Gazette 63 no. 6(2001): 459–79; Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

  6. Larry Willmore, “Government Policies toward Information and Communication Technologies: A Historical Perspective,” Journal of Information Science 28 no. 2(2002): 90.

  7. E. L. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 42.

  8. P. N. Stearns, M. Adas, and S. B. Schwartz, World Civilizations: The Global Experience (N.Y.: HarperCollins, 1992), 503.

  9. Stearns et al, World Civilizations.

  10. Kevin Reilly, The West and the World (vol.2) (N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1980).

  11. Habermas, “Further Reflections,” 422.

  12. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 27.

  13. Thomas McCarthy, “Introduction,” in Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1989), xi–xiv.

  14. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 175.

  15. McCarthy, “Introduction,” xii.

  16. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 240.

  17.Unless indicated otherwise, all citations below were taken from Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere (1989).

  18. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 36.

  19. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 85.

  20. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 37.

  21. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 36.

  22. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 28.

  23. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 248.

  24. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 51.

  25. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 60.

  26. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 36.

  27. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 171.

  28. Habermas, Structural Transformation of Public Sphere, 163.

  29. Calhoun, Habermas and the Public Sphere, 6.

  30. K. D. Trammell, and A. Keshelashvili, “Examining the New Influencers: A Self-Presentation Study of A-list Blogs,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 82 no.4 (2005), 968–982; P. Wallace, The Psychology of the Internet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

  31. B. Mehra, C. Merkel, and A. P. Bishop, “The Internet for Empowerment of Minority and Marginalized Users,(点击此处阅读下一页)

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