江山:论反垄断法规范中的规则与标准

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进入专题: 反垄断法规范  

江山  
26 Fordham Int’l L.J.83,91(2002).

   (68)See Communication from the Commission,Guidance on the Commission’s enforcement priorities in applying Article 82 of the EC Treaty to abusive exclusionary conduct by dominant undertakings,(2009/C 45/02).

   (69)See Antitrust Modernization Commission,Final Report,2007,p.81.

   (70)See Antitrust Modernization Commission,Final Report,2007,pp.91-94.

   (71)See Steven Salop,Avoiding Error in the Antitrust Analysis of Unilateral Refusals to Deal,Statement for the Hearing of the Antitrust Modernization Commission “Exclusionary Conduct”,Sept.21,2005,p.6.http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/amc/commission_hearings/pdf/Salop_Statement_Revised%209-21.pdf,最近访问时间[2021-01-21]。

   (72)Antitrust Modernization Commission,Final Report,2007,p.92.

   (73)See Brooke Group Ltd.v.Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp.,509 U.S.209,222-224(1993).

   (74)See Case C-62/86,AKZO Chemie BV v Commission of the European Communities,para.71(1991).

   (75)See Case C-333/94P,Tetra Pak International SA v Commission of the European Communities,para.44(1996).

   (76)Douglas Melamed,Exclusionary Conduct under the Antitrust Laws:Balancing,Sacrifice,and Refusals to Deal,20 Berkeley Tech.L.J.1247,1257(2005).

   (77)See Steven Salop,Avoiding Error in the Antitrust Analysis of Unilateral Refusals to Deal,Statement for the Hearing of the Antitrust Modernization Commission “Exclusionary Conduct”,Sept.21,2005,p.12.http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/amc/commission_hearings/pdf/Salop_Statement_Revised%209-21.pdf,最近访问时间[2021-01-21]。

   (78)See Brief for Appellees,United States v.Microsoft Corp.,Nos.00-5212,00-5213(D.C.Cir.Feb.9,2001).

   (79)See Brief for the United States,United States v.Dentsply Int’l,Inc.,No.03-4097(3d Cir.May 14,2004).

   (80)See Verizon Commc’ns,Inc.v.Law Offices of Curtis V.Trinko,LLP,540 U.S.398(2004).

   (81)Antitrust Modernization Commission,Final Report,2007,p.91.

   (82)See Steven Salop,Exclusionary Conduct,Effect on Consumers,and the Flawed Profit-Sacrifice Standard,73 Antitrust L.J.311,320(2006).

   (83)See Antitrust Modernization Commission,Final Report,2007,p.91.

   (84)See Gregory J.Werden,The “No Economic Sense” Test for Exclusionary Conduct,31 J.Corp.L.293,298(2006).

   (85)See Robert Pitofsky,Standards for Exclusionary Behavior Under Section 2 of the Sherman Act 5,Sept.9,2005,p.98.http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/amc/commission_hearings/pdf/Pitofsky.pdf.

   (86)See Jonathan M.Jacobson & Scott A.Sher,“No Economic Sense” Makes No Sense for Exclusive Dealing,73 Antitrust L.J.779,781(2006).

   (87)See Antitrust Modernization Commission,Final Report,2007,p.93.

   (88)参见重庆市工商行政管理局行政处罚决定书,渝工商经处字[2015]15号。

   (89)See Marina Lao,Defining Exclusionary Conduct Under Section 2:The Case For Non-Universal Standards,in Fordham International Antitrust Law & Policy ,Barry Hawk,ed.,Juris Publishing,2006,p.442.

   (90)Phillip Areeda & Herbert Hovenkamp,Antitrust Law,Wolters Kluwer,2002,651a.

   (91)See Douglas Melamed,Exclusive Dealing Agreements and Other Exclusionary Conduct-Are There Unifying Principles?,73 Antitrust L.J.375,380(2006).

   (92)[美]理查德·波斯纳著:《反托拉斯法》,孙秋宁译,中国政法大学出版社2003年版,第227页。

   (93)See American Bar Association,Section of Antitrust Law,Public Comments Submitted to AMC Regarding Exclusionary Conduct,pp.11-12(Mar.17,2006).

   (94)See Andrew I.Gavil,Exclusionary Distribution Strategies by Dominant Firms:Striking a Better Balance,72 Antitrust L.J.3,59(2004).

   (95)See Steven Salop,Avoiding Error in the Antitrust Analysis of Unilateral Refusals to Deal,Statement for the Hearing of the Antitrust Modernization Commission “Exclusionary Conduct”,Sept.21,2005,p.5.http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/amc/commission_hearings/pdf/Salop_Statement_Revised%209-21.pdf,最近访问时间[2021-01-21]。

   (96)See Andrew I.Gavil,Exclusionary Distribution Strategies by Dominant Firms:Striking a Better Balance,72 Antitrust L.J.3,60(2004).

   (97)See Einer Elhauge,Defining Better Monopolization Standards,56 Stan.L.Rev.253,256-257(2003).

   (98)参见O’Connor大法官的异议意见,Jefferson Parish Hosp.Dist.No.2 v.Hyde,466 U.S.2,44-46(1984)。

   (99)Thomas G.Krattenmaker & Steven C.Salop,Anticompetitive Exclusion:Raising Rivals’Costs to Achieve Power over Price,96 Yale L.J.209,291-292(1986).

   (100)See Daniel A.Crane and Graciela Miralles,Toward a Unified Theory of Exclusionary Vertical Restraints,84 S.Cal.L.Rev.605,608-609(2011).

   (101)参见[美]理查德·波斯纳著:《反托拉斯法》,孙秋宁译,中国政法大学出版社2003年版,第229页。

   (102)参见国家工商行政管理总局行政处罚决定书,工商竞争案字[2016]1号。

   (103)[美]罗纳德·德沃金著:《认真对待权利》,信春鹰、吴玉章译,中国大百科全书出版社1998年版,第68页。

   (104)See Mark Lemley & Christopher Leslie,Categorical Analysis in Antitrust Jurisprudence,93 Iowa Law Review 1207,1257(2008).

   (105)See Daniel Crane,Rules Versus Standards in Antitrust Adjudication,64 Wash & Lee L.Rev.49,56(2007).

  

  

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