汪舒明:美国犹太教“极化”进程中的以色列因素

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进入专题: 犹太教   以色列  

汪舒明  
⑩Stephen J.Savitsky,"The Answer to Jewry's Crisis," Jewish Action,Fall 2005,https://jewishaction.com/presidents-message/answer-jewrys-crisis/,上网时间:2020年11月10日。

   (11)即以犹太教法为主要内容的犹太教“圣卷”。

   (12)参见Haym Soloveitchik,"Rupture and Reconstruction:The Transformation of Contemporary Orthodoxy," in Tradition:A Journal of Orthodox Jewish Thought,Vol.28,No.4,Summer 1994,pp.64-130。

   (13)参见Barry A.Kosmin,"It's the Best of Times:It's the Worst of Times," in Arnold Dashefsky and Ira Sheskin,eds.,American Jewish Year Book 2014,Dordrecht:Springer,pp.61-65。

   (14)Jack Wertheimer,"American Jews and Israel:A 60-Year Retrospective," in American Jewish Year Book 2008,New York:American Jewish Committee,pp.3-79.

   (15)Jonathan D.Sarna,"The Relationship of Orthodox Jews with Believing Jews of Other Religious Ideologies and Non-Believing Jews:The American Situation in Historical Perspective," in Adam Mintz,ed.,The Relationship of Orthodox Jews with Believing Jews of Other Religious Ideologies and Non-Believing Jews,New York:Yeshiwa University Press,2010,p.20.

   (16)Dov Waxman,Trouble in the Tribe:The American Jewish Conflict over Israel,Princeton:Princeton University Press,2018,pp.4-5.

   (17)Dov Waxman,Trouble in the Tribe:The American Jewish Conflict over Israel,Princeton:Princeton University Press,2018,pp.117-118.

   (18)Arnold Dashefsky and Ira Sheskin,eds.,American Jewish Year Book 2017,Dordrecht:Springer,pp.124,153.

   (19)参见Jack Wertheimer,"American Jews and Israel:A 60-Year Retrospective," pp.3-79。

   (20)"Israel's Religiously Divided Society," Pew Research Center,March 8,2016,p.46,https://www.pewforum.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/2016/03/Israel-Survey-Full-Report.pdf,上网时间:2020年12月29日。

   (21)Theodore Sasson,The New American Zionism,New York:New York University Press,2014,p.14.

   (22)关于本-古里安和布劳斯坦的交涉过程以及协议内容,参见Marianne R.Sanua,Let Us Prove Strong:The American Jewish Committee,1945-2006,Waltham:Brandeis University Press,2007,pp.60-64。

   (23)Theodore Sasson,The New American Zionism,p.5;关于此种模式转换的相关分析,参见杨阳:《美国犹太人与以色列关系模式的转变》,载《阿拉伯世界研究》2012年第5期,第31-44页。

   (24)"Our Story," Birthright Israel,https://www.birthrightisrael.com/about_us_inner/52?scroll=art_1,上网时间:2021年1月25日。

   (25)“Masa”在希伯来语中意为“旅行”。

   (26)Theodore Sasson,The New American Zionism,p.89.

   (27)"About the IAC," Israeli American Council,https://www.israeliamerican.org/about-us,上网时间:2021年1月4日。

   (28)Omri Nahmias,"'The Best Show in Town':In IAC Speech,Trump Felt at Home," The Jerusalem Post,December 8,2019,https://www.jpost.com/American-Politics/The-best-show-intown-In-IAC-speech-Trump-felt-at-home-analysis-610281,上网时间:2020年8月7日。

   (29)Judy Maltz,"2010-2019|The Decade Israel's Reform and Conservative Jews Fought an Uphill Battle," Haaretz,December 24,2019,https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/2010-2019-decade-in-review/.premium-for-israel-s-reform-and-conservative-jews-an-uphill-battle-with-some-reprieves-l.8298205,上网时间:2020年6月9日。

   (30)Charles S.Liebman and Steven M.Cohen,Two Worlds of Judaism:The Israeli and American Experiences,New Haven and London:Yale University Press,1990,pp.96-99.

   (31)Eliezer Don-Yihya,"Orthodox Jewry in Israel and in North America," Israel Studies,Vol.10,No.1,Spring 2005,pp.157-187.

   (32)Chaim I.Waxman,Social Change and Halakhic Evolution in American Orthodox,Oxford:The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization,2019,p.22.

   (33)Samuel C.Heilman,Sliding to the Right:The Contest for the Future of American Jewish Orthodoxy,Oakland:University of California Press,2020,pp.120-121; Samuel C.Heilman,"Jews and Fundamentalism," Jewish Political Studies Review,Vol.17,No.1/2,Spring 2005,pp.183-189.

   (34)Asher Cohen and Bernard Susser,Israel and the Politics of Jewish Identity:The Secular-Religous Impasse,Baltimore:The Johns Hopkins University Press,2000,p.61.

   (35)Michal Shamir and Asher Arial,"Collective Identity and Electoral Competition in Israel," The American Political Science Review,Vol.93,No.2,June 1999,pp.265-277.

   (36)以色列社会存在多重分裂,犹太人与阿拉伯人之间、宗教势力与世俗力量之间、新移民与老移民之间、左翼势力与右翼势力之间的矛盾与冲突,导致了身份政治的“极化”。参见艾仁贵:《一个还是多个:认同极化与当代以色列的身份政治困境》,载《西亚非洲》2020年第4期,第51-80页。

   (37)Ilan Pappe,"Israel at a Crossroads Between Civic Democracy and Jewish Zealotocracy," Journal of Palestine Studies,Vol.29,No.3,Spring 2000,pp.33-44.

   (38)Donna Bobinson Divine,"Zionism and the Politics of Authenticity," Israel Studies,Vol.19,No.2,Summer 2014,p.106.

   (39)Yedidia Z.Stern,Religion,State,and the Jewish Identity Crisis in Israel,The Brookings Institution,2017,pp.6-7,https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/cmep_2017-0331_jewish-ndentity-crisis.pdf,上网时间:2020年9月10日。

(40)Eliezer Schweid,"The Multifrontal Cultural War in Israel," Democratic Culture,Vol.3,2000,(点击此处阅读下一页)

    进入专题: 犹太教   以色列  

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文章来源:阿拉伯世界研究 2021年02期

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