高一飞 陈恋:美国《无辜者保护法》十五年:回顾与反思

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进入专题: 无辜者保护法   DNA   错案纠正   辩诉交易  

高一飞 (进入专栏)   陈恋  
policy.net/proactive/newsroom/release.vtml?id=30121 (last visited Dec. 29, 2005).

   [16] Kirk Bloodsworth, My 20-Year Journey,THE TULSA WORLD, Sept. 21, 2003, at G3.

   [17] Randall Coyne & Lyn Entzeroth , Capital Punishment and the Judicial Process 2d ed., Carolina Academic Press,2001, pp.35.

   [18] Maggie Mulvihill & Franci Richardson, Special Report:Justice Denied;It's Time for Age Of Innocence;A Call for Commission on Wrongful Convictions,THE BOSTON HERALD, May 7,2004, at 7.

   [19] Bill Rankin, Reno Decries conviction errors,the Atlanta Journal-Constrrution, Aug.6, 2004, at 13A.

   [20] Joe Gyan, Jr., Compensation Law Touted For Ex-Inmates, THE ADVOCATE (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), Oct. 14, 2003, at

   7.B.S.

   [21] National institute of justice, Post-Conviction DNA testing: recommendations for handling requests 1 (1999).

   [22] See Joe Gyan, Jr., Compensation Law Touted For Ex-Inmates, THE ADVOCATE (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), Oct. 14, 2003, at

   7.B.S.

   [23] Michael E. Kleinert, Improving the Quality of Justice:The Innocence Protection Act 2004 Ensures Post-Conviction DNA Testing, Better Legal Representation, and Increased Compensation for the Wrongfully Imprisoned, 44 Brandeis L.J Press, 2006, pp.491. 

   [24] Howard S. Master, Revisiting the Takings-Based Argument for Compensating the Wrongfully Convicted, 60 N.Y.U.

   ANN. SURV. AM. L Press, 2004, pp.97-102.

   [25] The Justice Project, History of the Innocence Protection Act, available at http://ccjr.policy.net/proactive/newsroom/release.vtml?id=3524238 (last visited Dec. 29, 2005).

   [26] Patrick Leahy, Statement of Senator Patrick Leahy: The Justice For All Act of 2004(Oct. 9,2004), available at

   http://leahy.senate.gov/press/200410/100904B.html (last visited Dec. 29,2005).

   [27] DPIC SUMMARY The Innocence Protection Act of 2004 | Death Penalty Information Center death penaltyinfo.org 108-405.https://death penaltyinfo.org/dpic-summary-innocence-protection-act-2004.

   [28] Michael E. Kleinert, Improving the Quality of Justice:The Innocence Protection Act 2004 Ensures Post-Conviction DNA Testing, Better Legal Representation, and Increased Compensation for the Wrongfully Imprisoned, 44 Brandeis L.J Press,2006, pp.491.

   [29] See Daniel S. Medwed, Up the River Without a Procedure:Innocent Prisoners and Newly Discovered Non-DNA Evidence in

   State Courts, 47 ARIZ.L. REV. 655, 656 (2005) (explaining that approximately eighty to ninety percent of cases lack biological evidence).

   [30] Samuel R. Wiseman, Waiving Innocence, 96 Minn. L. Rev Press,2012, pp.952.

   [31] Barkai, supra note 40, at 97; Josh Bowers, The Unusual Man in the Usual Place, 157 U. PA. L. REV. PENNUMBRA

   Press,2009, pp.260-261.

   [32] Samuel Gross, et. al, Exonerations in the United States, 1989 through 2003, 95 J. CRIM. L. & CRIMINOLOGY

   Press,2005, pp.523-536.

   [33] 18 U.S.C.§3600(a)(3)(A)(i).

   [34] Jerry Markon, Justice Dept. to Review Bush Policyon DNA Test, WASH. PosT, Oct. 11, 2009, at A7.

   [35] Letter from Ronald C. Machen, Jr.,U.S. Attorney, U.S. Dept of Justice, to William M. Sullivan, Jr.§13 (Apr. 19, 2010) (on file with author).

   [36] Plea Agreement §11, 12, United States v. McPike, No.3:05-cr-30069-WDS (S.D. Ill. May 6, 2005)

   [37] Letter from Nora R. Dannehy &Ann M. Nevins, U.S. Dep't of Justice,to Arnold Kriss (Feb. 11, 2010) .

   [38] Plea Agreement § 6, United States v. Gomez, No. 1:07cr125 (E.D.Va. Apr. 20, 2007) .

   [39] Memorandum from Eric H. Holder,Jr., Attorney Gen., to all Fed.Prosecutors 1 (Nov. 18, 2010), availableat http://www justice.gov/ag/ag-memo-dna-waivers111810.pdf

   (describing the 2004 memorandum).

   [40] Cf. Schick v. United States, 195 U.S. 65, 72 (1904) ("When there is no constitutional or statutory mandate,

   and no public policy prohibiting, an accused may waive any privilege which he is given the right to enjoy.").

   [41] United States v. Mezzanatto, 513 U.S. 196, 204 (1995) .

   [42] Facts on Post-Conviction DNA Exonerations,THE INNOCENCE PROJECT, http://www.innocence

   project.org/Content/Facts_on_Post Conviction_DNA- Exonerations.php (last visited Nov.30, 2011).

   [43] Samuel R. Wiseman, Waiving Innocence, 96 Minn. L. Rev Press, 2012, pp.952.

   [44] CAL. PENAL CODE§1405(m) (West 2011) ("Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the right to file a motion for postconviction DNA testing provided by this section is absolute and shall not be waived. This prohibition applies to, but is not limited to, a waiver that is given as part of an agreement resulting in a plea of guilty or nolo contendere.").

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