肖河:国际私营安保治理与中国海外利益保护

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进入专题: 私营安保     海外利益保护     国际安全治理     国家安全  

肖河  
2015-2016:A Scoping Study,Geneva:The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces,2016,pp.17-18.

   ②《武装冲突期间各国关于私营军事和安保服务公司营业的相关国际法律义务和良好惯例的蒙特勒文件》,《序言》第9条B款,http://www.icrc.org/zh/international-review/article/commentary-part-i-montreux-document-pertinent-international-legal,访问时间:2017年11月7日。

   ③International Code of Conduct for Private Security Services Prodder,A Preamble,Paragraph 1,https://www.ico ca.ch/sites/all/themes/icoca/assets/icoc_english3.pdf,访问时间:2017年11月7日。

   ④Otto Argueta,"Private Security in Guatemala:Pathway to Its Proliferation," Bulletin of Latin American Research,Vol.31,No.3,2012,pp.320-335.

   ⑤Janvan Dijk,The World of Crime:Breaking the Silence on Problems of Security,Justice,and Development across the World,London:Sage,2008.

   ⑥《联合国人权专家呼吁制定国际公约管制私营军事和保安公司》,http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/chinese/archives/194926/,访问时间:2017年11月7日;同一数字参见"Private Contract Security Services to See Steady Global Demand," http://www.securityinfowatch.com/article/10862533/freedonia-group-report-forecasts-global-demand-for-contract-security-services-to-reach-244b-in-2016,访问时间:2017年11月7日。

   ⑦以最大的全球安保公司杰富仕为例,政府职能的外包业务在2015年已经占总收入的34%。参见"Integrated Report and Accounts 2015," pp.2-4,http://www.integratedreport.g4s.com/,访问时间:2017年11月7日。

   ⑧M.Douglas and B.Isherwood,The World of Goods:Towards an Anthropology of Consumption,London:Allen Lane,1979.

   ⑨Peter W.Singer,Corporate Warriors,the Rise of the Privatized Military Industry,Ithaca:Cornell University Press,2004.

   ⑩James Pattison,Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect:Who Should Intervene? New York:Oxford University Press,2003.

   (11)Clifford D.Shearing and Philip C.Stenning,"Modern Private Security:Its Growth and Implications," in M.Tonry and M.Norval,eds.,Crime and Justice:An Annual Review of Research,Chicago:University of Chicago Press,1981,pp.193-245.

   (12)Martha Lizabeth Phelps,"Doppelgangers of the State:Private Security and Transferable Legitimacy," Politics and Policy,Vol.42,No.6,2014,p.829.

   (13)Aaron L.Friedberg,"Why Didn't the United States Become a Garrison State," International Security,Vol.16,No.4,1992,pp.109-142.

   (14)Ian Loader,"Plural Policing and Democratic Governance," Social and Legal Studies,Vol.9,No.3,2000,pp.323-345.

   (15)Stephen Goldsmith and William D.Eggers,Governing by Network:The New Shape of the Public Sector,Washington,D.C.:Brookings Institution Press,2004.

   (16)Saskia Sasen,Territory,Authority,Rights:From Medieval to Global Assemblages,Princeton:Princeton University Press,2006.

   (17)在尼日利亚和塞拉利昂,国家通过构建由全球资本、跨国私营安保公司、地方警察、国际警察顾问组成的多层次安全体系的方式,增强了自身在安全领域的能力和权威,甚至增强了国家暴力的合法性。案例参见Rita Abrahamsen and Michael C.Williams,"Security beyond the State:Global Security Assemblages in International Politics," International Political Sociology,Vol.3,No.1,2009,pp.3-17。

   (18)S.Gibson,"Regulated Private Security Companies Versus a Professional Security Sector:A Cautionary Tale," Journal of Security Sector Management,Vol.5,2007,pp.1-13.

   (19)Angélica Thumala,Benjamin Goold and Ian Loader,"A Tainted Trade? Moral Ambivalence and Legitimation Work in the Private Security Industry," The British Journal of Sociology,Vol.62,No.2,2011,p.283.

   (20)Martha Lizabeth Phelps,"Doppelgangers of the State:Private Security and Transferable Legitimacy," p.837.

   (21)根据《私营安保服务供应商国际行为守则》中的定义,复杂环境是指因武装冲突或自然灾害而陷入动乱或者从中恢复时,法制遭到持续性削弱、国家控制能力受损、受限或者荡然无存的状态。在文献中也被称为冲突地区。

   (22)Nelleke Van Amstel and Tilman ,The Montreux Document and the International Code of Conduct:Understanding the Relationship between International Initiatives to Regulate the Global Private Security Industry,Geneva:The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces,2016,pp.2-3.

   (23)Emmylou Boddi,Anna Marie Burdzy and Nelleke Van Amstel,Putting Private Security Regulation into Practice:Sharing Good Practices on Procurement and Contracting,2015-2016:A Scoping Study,pp.1-3.

   (24)"A Booming Business:Private Security and Small Arms," p.119,http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/A-Yearbook/2011/en/Small-Arms-Survey-2011-Chapter-04-EN.pdf,访问时间:2017年11月7日。

   (25)James Pattison,"Just War Theory and the Privatization of Military Force," Ethics and International Affairs,Vol.22,No.2,2008,pp.155-159.

   (26)与其相对的概念是开战正义(jus ad bellum),即介入冲突的合法性。同样有研究认为私营安保公司应当根据是否出于正当动机、是否得到合法授权来决定是否参与行动。参见Deane-Peter Baker and James Pattison,"The Principled Case for Employing Private Military and Security Companies in Interventions for Human Rights Purposes," Journal of Applied Philosophy,Vol.29,No.1,2012,p.4。

   (27)Betsy Perabo,"The Proportionate Treatment of Enemy Subjects:A Reformulation of the Principle of Discrimination," Journal of Military Ethics,Vol.7,No.2,2008,pp.136-137.

(28)Thomas Hurka,(点击此处阅读下一页)

    进入专题: 私营安保     海外利益保护     国际安全治理     国家安全  

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文章来源:《世界经济与政治》 2018年01期

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