马金星:欧盟参与南极海洋环境治理的路径及趋势*

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进入专题: 欧盟   南极海洋环境治  

马金星  
[46]Article 2(2) Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.

   [47]黄栋、贺之杲:《欧盟参与北极治理的合法性研究》,载《德国研究》,2017年第3期,第54页。

   [48]Articles 4(1), 5(1) Treaty on European Union.

   [49]Commission v Council (Antarctic MPAs), European Court of Justice, Judgment in Joined Cases C-626/15 and C-659/16, 20 November 2018, para.27.

   [50]Article 3 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

   [51]2019年,挪威在南极海洋生物资源养护委员会(CCAMLR)年会期间,改变之前反对威德尔海保护区提案的态度,与欧盟、德国共同作为该保护区联合提案方,承诺将为保护区东部区域投入资源开展研究。See Report of the Thirty-eighth Meeting of the Commission, 21 October to 1 November 2019, https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/e-cc-38-prelim-v2.pdf, last accessed on 1 December 2019.

   [52]2019年10月,在南极海洋生物资源养护委员会年度会议上,俄罗斯认为保护区提案可用基准数据的质量不适宜,中国则从必要性、确定性、可衡量性、问责性和严格性提出质疑,认为保护区提案缺乏足够的数据支持。Ibid., paras.6.41, 6.49.

   [53]该提案自2010年提出,此后历经多年讨论和修改,从原有的七块保护区缩减为目前的三块。See Liu Nengye, "The European Union and the Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in Antarctica," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol.18, Issue 6, 2018, pp.862-869.

   [54]European Union, “East Antarctic Representative System of Marine Protected Areas (EARSMPA) ,”https://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/content/questions-and-answers-east-antarctic-representative-system-marine-protected-areas-earsmpa_fi, last accessed on 1 December 2019.

   [55]2019年,欧盟、德国及挪威根据地理位置,将EARSMPA分为西部和东两部分,并提议分为两个阶段来讨论保护区提案。See CCAMLR, “Report of the Thirty-eighthth Meeting of the Commission,” Hobart, Australia, 21 October to 1 November 2019, p.32, https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/e-cc-38-prelim-v2.pdf, last accessed on 13December 2019.

   [56]See Delegations of Australia and the European Union and Its Member States, “Draft Conservation Measure for an East Antarctic Marine Protected Area,” CCAMLR-XXXVII/24 Rev.1, 17 October 2018, part 7, https://www.ccamlr.org/en/ccamlr-xxxvii/24-rev-1, last accessed on 1 December 2019.

   [57]CCAMLR, “Annex 91-XX/A: Management Plan for the East Antarctic Marine Protected Area (EAMPA) ,”https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/meeting_documents/e-cc-xxxiv-29r1.docx, last accessed on 1 December 2019.

   [58]L. C. Kovacs et al., “Seafloor Spreading in the Weddell Sea from Magnetic and Gravity Data”,Tectonophysics, Vol. 347, Issue 1, 2002, pp.43-64.

   [59]Charlotte Havermans et al., “A Biodiversity Survey of Scavenging Amphipods in a Proposed Marine Protected Area: The Filchner Area in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica,” Polar Biology, Vol. 41, Issue 18, 2018, pp.18-20.

   [60]See “EU Proposal to Establish the Weddell Sea MPA (WSMPA)”(CCAMLR-XXXVII/29), 7 September 2018, https://www.ccamlr.org/en/ccamlr-xxxvii/29, last accessed on 1 December 2019.

   [61]张彤:《欧盟权能的划分——《里斯本条约》生效后的变化和问题》,载《国家行政学院学报》,2010年第5期,第130页。

   [62]欧盟理事会在德国、希腊、西班牙、法国、芬兰、瑞典和英国支持下,对C-626/15号案件的可受理性提出质疑,理由是2015年9月11日的决定不是一项具有挑战性的行为。See Commission v Council (Antarctic MPAs), Judgment in Joined Cases C-626/15 and C-659/16, European Court of Justice, 20 November 2018, paras.56,59.

   [63]Commission v Council (Antarctic MPAs), Judgment in Joined Cases C-626/15 and C-659/16, European Court of Justice, 20 November 2018, para.73.

   [64]Articles 2(2), 4(2)(e) Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

   [65]2015年9月11日,欧盟理事会成员国常驻代表委员会(COREPER)代表欧盟及其成员国批准《关于建立威德尔海海洋环境保护区养护措施的建议》。See Commission v Council (Antarctic MPAs), Judgment in Joined Cases C-626/15 and C-659/16, European Court of Justice, 20 November 2018, para.49.

   [66]Ibid.

   [67]Ibid., paras.59, 60, 65.

   [68]Ibid., para. 67.

   [69]Article 3 (1) (d) Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

   [70]Commission v Council (Antarctic MPAs), Judgment in Joined Cases C-626/15 and C-659/16, European Court of Justice, 20 November 2018, paras. 89-92.

   [71]Ibid., paras.128,130.

   [72]Article 2 (2) Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.

   [73]Commission v. Council (Antarctic MPAs), Opinion of Advocate General Kokott, Joined Cases C‑ 626/15 and C‑ 659/16, European Court of Justice, 31 May 2018, para.81.

   [74]Commission v Council (Antarctic MPAs), Judgment in Joined Cases C-626/15 and C-659/16, European Court of Justice, 20 November 2018,paras.92, 100 .

   [75]China-Measures Affecting Trading Rights and Distribution Services for Certain Publications and Audiovisual Entertainment Products, WT/DS363/AB/R, 21 December 2009, p.164, para.405.

   [76]Article 4(3) Treaty on European Union.

   [77]Nils Vanstappen,“The Engagement of the European Union in the Governance of Antarctica,”https://www.ispionline.it/en/pubblicazione/engagement-european-union-governance-antarctica-23530, last accessed on 1 December 2019.

[78]Timothy Roes, “Facultative Mixity: Blessing Disguised?(点击此处阅读下一页)

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