金灿荣 汤祯滢:从“参议院综合症”透视美国政党极化的成因

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进入专题: 美国政治     政党     极化  

金灿荣 (进入专栏)   汤祯滢  
Smith,Politics or Principle? Filibustering in the United States Senate (Washington,D.C.:Brookings Institution Press,1997),p.60.

   (12)James Madison,The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787,Vol.1(Max Farrand ed.,New Haven,Connecticut:Yale University Press,1966),p.151.

   (13)宪法中关于美国参议员的资格规定,详见美国参议院官网“Constitutional Qualifications for Senator,” available at:https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/Constitutional_Qualifications_Senators.htm。

   (14)参议院立法程序,详见美国参议院官网“Senate Legislative Process,” available at:https://www.senate.gov/legislative/common/briefing/Senate_legislative_process.htm。

   (15)Sarah A.Binder,Minority Rights,Majority Rule:Partisanship and the Development of Congress (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1997),p.xi.

   (16)Louis Jacobson,“Harry Reid Says 82 Presidential Nominees Have Been Blocked under President Barack Obama,86 blocked under All Other Presidents,” PolitiFact,November 22,2013,available at:https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2013/nov/22/harry-reid/harry-reid-says-82-presidential-nominees-have-been/.

   (17)Donald E.Matthews,U.S.Senators and Their World (New York:Vintage Books,1960),p.39.

   (18)Barbara Sinclair,Party Wars:Polarization and the Politics of National Policy Making,p.187.

   (19)Barbara Sinclair,“The ‘60-Vote Senate’:Strategies,Process,and Outcomes,” in Bruce I.Oppenheimer ed.U.S.Senate Exceptionalism (Columbus:Ohio State University Press,2002),pp.245~246.

   (20)Hans Noel,Political Ideologies and Political Parties in America (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2013),p.175.

   (21)Jennifer Steinhauer,“Weighing the Effect of an Exit of Centrists” New York Times,October 8,2012,available at:https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/09/us/politics/pool-of-moderates-in-congress-is-shrinking.html.

   (22)Frances E.Lee,“Making Laws and Making Points:Senate Governance in an Era of Uncertain Majorities,” The Forum,Vol.9(4),Article 3(January,2011),p.2.

   (23)历届多数派和少数派领导人名单,详见美国参议院官网:“Majority and Minority Leaders,” available at:https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/Majority_Minority_Leaders.htm。

   (24)Joseph A.Schlesinger,“The New American Political Party,” American Political Science Review,Vol.79(August,1985),pp.1152~1169.

   (25)中位数差异值越大,政党极化越严重;反之,则越小。详见Hahrie Han & David W.Brady,“A Delayed Return to Historical Norms:Congressional Party Polarization after the Second World War,” British Journal of Political Science,Vol.37,No.3(July,2007),p.508。

   (26)Jay M.Shafritz,The Dorsey Dictionary of American Government and Politics (Chicago:The Dorsey Press,1988),p.417.

   (27)James M.Burns et al.,Government By the People (New Jersey:Prentice Hall,1987),p.188.

   (28)师枫燕:《六十年代以来美国政党制度的连续性与变化:〈美国的政党和政治〉译后》,载《美国研究》,1990年第2期,第33~35页。

   (29)Geoffrey C.Layman et al.,“Party Polarization in American Politics:Characteristics,Causes and Consequences,” Annual Review of Political Science,Vol.9(June,2006),pp.83~110.

   (30)B.Dan Wood and Soren Jordan,Party Polarization in America:The War over Two Social Contracts (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2017),pp.303~305.

   (31)B.Dan Wood and Soren Jordan,Party Polarization in America:The War over Two Social Contracts,p.6.

   (32)Nolan McCarty et al.,Polarized America:The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches (Cambridge,The MIT Press,2008),p.188.

   (33)B.Dan Wood and Soren Jordan,Party Polarization in America:The War over Two Social Contracts,p.304.

   (34)B.Dan Wood and Soren Jordan,Party Polarization in America:The War over Two Social Contracts,p.5.

   (35)B.Dan Wood and Soren Jordan,Party Polarization in America:The War over Two Social Contracts,p.6.

   (36)本文中的“精英”指来自某政党的当选议员代表和政治活动家,“精英极化”指政党之间的意识形态差异日益明显且政党内部同质化程度日益加深。James N.Druckman et al.,“How Elite Partisan Polarization Affects Public Opinion Formation,” American Political Science Review,Vol.107,No.1(February,2013),p.57。

   (37)B.Dan Wood and Soren Jordan,Party Polarization in America:The War over Two Social Contracts,p.305.

   (38)何晓跃:《美国政治极化的层次界定与生成逻辑》,载《国际展望》,2014年第1期,第103~105页。

   (39)Duncan Black,“On the Rationale of Group Decision-Making,” Journal of Political Economy,Vol.56,No.1(February,1948),pp.23~34.

   (40)来源于商业概念“战略进入威慑”,指的是现有企业在特定市场采取的任何行动,阻止潜在进入者进入该市场的竞争。

   (41)Steven Callander,“Electoral Competition in Heterogeneous Districts,” Journal of Political Economy,Vol.113,No.5(October,2005),pp.1116~1145.

   (42)James N.Druckman et al.,“How Elite Partisan Polarization Affects Public Opinion Formation,” American Political Science Review,Vol.107,No.1(February,2013),pp.57~79.

   (43)Joshua Robison and Kevin J.Mullinix,“Elite Polarization and Public Opinion:How Polarization Is Communicated and Its Effects,” Political Communication,Vol.33,No.2(May,2016),pp.261~282.

   (44)Pew Research Center,“Survey of U.S.adults conducted March”,19-April.29,2014,Available at:http://www.journalism.org/2014/10/21/political-polarization-media-habits/.

   (45)Marc J.Hetherington,“Review Article:Putting Polarization in Perspective,” British Journal of Political Science,Vol.39,No.2(April,2009),pp.413~448.

   (46)武建强:《难以妥协的政治:不断加深的美国政党极化现象分析》,载《东岳论丛》,2016年第3期,第164~170页。

   (47)B.Dan Wood and Soren Jordan,Party Polarization in America:The War over Two Social Contracts,p.8.

   (48)Thomas Zittel,The Dark and Bright Sides of Party Polarization,Social Science Research Council,2018,available at:http://items.ssrc.org/the-dark-and-bright-sides-of-party-polarization/.

  

  

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文章来源:《美国研究》2019年 第2期

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