丁伊 沈丁立:从集体安全、联盟安全到自助安全

——论印度的拥核之路
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进入专题: 核武器     集体安全     联盟安全     自助安全  

丁伊   沈丁立  
p.100.事实上,印度并非第一个在联合国框架下提出管控核武器要求的国家。1953年12月,美国总统艾森豪威尔威尔曾向联合国大会第八届会议提出“原子能和平用途”建议。至1957年,联合国框架内的谈判已涉及核不扩散原则,到60年代中期,一项维持核不扩散作为国际行为规范的条约结构已经明晰。

   (21)参见联合国大会1965年第2028号决议,http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp? symbol=A/RES/2028(XX);1966年第2153号决议,http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp? symbol=A/RES/2153(XXI);1967年第2346号决议,http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp? symbol=A/RES/2346(XXII)

   (22)George Perkovich,India’s Nuclear Bomb:The Impact on Global Proliferation,p.103.

   (23)George Perkovich,India’s Nuclear Bomb:The Impact on Global Proliferation,p.104.

   (24)联合国大会1965年第2028号决议。http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp? symbol=A/RES/2028(XX)

   (25)联合国大会1966年第2153号决议。http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp? symbol=A/RES/2153(XXI)

   (26)General Assembly,“Final Document of the Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States,” Twenty-third Session,Agenda Item 96,p.4.https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N68/228/23/PDF/N6822823.pdf

   (27)“Memorandum of Conversation from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense:Meeting between the Secretary of Defense and Mr.L.K.Jha,Tuesday,18 April at 10 a.m.,” April 25,1967,in “India and Pakistan-On the Nuclear Threshold,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No.6,Doc.15,p.2.

   (28)联合国安理会1968年第255号决议。http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp? symbol=S/RES/255(1968)

   (29)“Memorandum,Permanent Mission of Hungary to the UN to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry,April 12,1968,” Hungarian National Archives,XIX-J-1-j Multilateral International Treaties,1968.

   (30)Office of the Historian,“Foreign Relations of the United States,1961-1963,Volume XIX,South Asia,197,Editorial Note,” https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1961-63v19/d197; Office of the Historian,“Foreign Relations of the United States,1961-1963,Volume XIX,South Asia,307,Telegram from the Embassy in India to the Department of State,July 10,1963”.https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1961-63v19/d307

   (31)Alexandre Debs and Nuno P.Monteiro,Nuclear Politics:The Strategic Causes of Proliferation,p.246.

   (32)George Perkovich,India’s Nuclear Bomb:The Impact on Global Proliferation,p.87.

   (33)Ibid.

   (34)“State Department Memorandum for the President:NSC Meeting,June 9,1966,” June 7,1966,in “India and Pakistan-On the Nuclear Threshold,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No.6,Doc.10,pp.5-9.

   (35)“Memorandum from the State Department:Security Assurances for India,” April 20,1967,in “India and Pakistan-On the Nuclear Threshold,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No.6,Doc.14,p.15.

   (36)“Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense:The Indian Nuclear Problem:Proposed Course of Action,” October 23,1964,in “India and Pakistan-On the Nuclear Threshold,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No.6,Doc.2,p.2.

   (37)“Memorandum from the State Department:Security Assurances for India,” April 20,1967,in “India and Pakistan-On the Nuclear Threshold,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No.6,Doc.14,p.5.

   (38)“Memorandum of Conversation from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense:Meeting between the Secretary of Defense and Mr.L.K.Jha,Tuesday,18 April at 10 a.m.,” April 25,1967,in “India and Pakistan-On the Nuclear Threshold,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No.6,Doc.15,p.2.

   (39)Office of the Historian,“Foreign Relations of the United States,1964-1968,Volume XXV,South Asia,No.74,Memorandum of Conversation,November 3,1964”.https://history.state.gov/historicaldo cuments/frus1964-68v25/d74.

   (40)Balazs Szalontai,“The Elephant in the Room:The Soviet Union and India’s Nuclear Program,1967-1989,” Nuclear Proliferation International History Project Working Paper Series,p.3.https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/indian_nuclear_history_and_soviet_relations_-_ver_2.pdf.

   (41)“Memorandum,Permanent Mission of Hungary to the UN to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry,April 12,1968,” Hungarian National Archives,XIX-J-1-j Multilateral International Treaties,1968.

   (42)Balazs Szalontai,“The Elephant in the Room:The Soviet Union and India’s Nuclear Program,1967-1989,” p.4.

   (43)“Report,Embassy of Hungary in the Soviet Union to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry,June 2,1967,” Hungarian National Archives,XIX-J-1-j India,1967.

   (44)Alexandre Debs and Nuno P.Monteiro,Nuclear Politics:The Strategic Causes of Proliferation,p.240.

   (45)George Perkovich,India’s Nuclear Bomb:The Impact on Global Proliferation,p.59.

   (46)George Perkovich,India’s Nuclear Bomb:The Impact on Global Proliferation,p.81.

   (47)Ibid.

(48)Rajesh M.Basrur,“Nuclear Weapons and Indian Strategic Culture,” Journal of Peace Research,Vol.(点击此处阅读下一页)

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