陈翔:内战为何演化成代理人战争

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进入专题: 内战     代理人战争     自主性     干预意愿     安哥拉内战  

陈翔  
后者发生在一国政府与没有其他国家支持的内部反对派之间。参见Nils P.Gleditsch,et al.,"Armed Conflict 1946-2001:A New Dataset," p.619。

   (97)罗德·黑格、马丁·哈罗德著,张小劲等译:《比较政府与政治导论》,北京:中国人民大学出版社2007年版,第118页。

   (98)关于安哥拉内战的细节可参见Judith Matloff,Fragment of a Forgotten War,Johannesburg:Penguin,1997; Tony Hodges,Angola:Anatomy of an Oil State,Oxford:Currey,2004。

   (99)参见William Minter,Apartheid's Contras:An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique,London:Zed Books,1994。

   (100)杨原、曹玮:《大国无战争、功能分异与两极体系下的大国共治》,载《世界经济与政治》,2015年第8期,第34页。

   (101)Martin Meredith,The State of Africa:A History of Fifty Years of Independence,London:The Free Press,2005,p.316.

   (102)美国国会反对直接介入安哥拉内战,担心成为越南式的战争泥潭,禁止援助反共的安哥拉游击队。参见Robert D.Johnson,Congress and the Cold War,New York:Cambridge University Press,2006,p.222。

   (103)Arthur Schelesinger,"Foreign Policy and the American Charter," Foreign Affairs,Vol.62,No.1,1983,p.5.

   (104)1975年11月“安人运”在罗安达建立安哥拉人民共和国政府以后,“安盟”与“安解阵”变成反政府武装。

   (105)Arthur Klinghoffer,The Angolan War:A Study in Soviet Policy in the Third World,Boulder:Westview Press,1980,p.77.

   (106)John Stockwell,In Search of Enemies:A CIA Story,New York:W.W.Norton & Company,1978,p.209.

   (107)辛华编译:《苏联共产党第二十五次代表大会主要文件汇编》,上海:上海三联书店1977年版,第14页。

   (108)Odd Ame Westad,The Global Cold War:Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Time,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2005,p.165.

   (109)M.N.Katz,The Third World in Soviet Military Thought,London:Croom Helm,1982,p.30.

   (110)Klaus von Beyme,The Soviet Union in World Politics,New York:St.Martin's Press,1987,p.142.

   (111)对于古巴介入安哥拉内战的动机问题,有学者指出古巴是希望从苏联集团获取更多经济好处。参见Jiri Valenta,"The Soviet-Cuban Intervention in Angola 1975," Studies in Comparative Communism,Vol.11,No.1-2,1978,pp.3-33。

   (112)Peter J.Scbraeder,United States Foreign Policy Towards Africa:Incrementalism,Crisis and Change,New York:Cambridge University Press,1994,p.34.

   (113)这从侧面反映了苏联援助第三世界内部行为体还考量对方的实力,以减少不必要的损耗,提高援助的收益性。参见Roy Allison,The Soviet Union and the Strategy of Non-Alignment in the Third World,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1988,p.226。

   (114)William Tordoff,Government and Politics in Africa,London:Macmillan Education Ltd,1984,p.196.

   (115)Martin Meredith,The State of Africa:A History of Fifty Years of Independence,London:The Free Press,2005,p.313.

   (116)David Birmingham,"Orphans of the Cold War:Angola's People," African Affairs,Vol.96,No.384,1997,pp.439-445.

   (117)Bethany Lacina,"From Side Show to Centre Stage:Civil Conflict After the Cold War," p.191.

   (118)Brennan M.Kraxberger,"The United States and Africa:Shifting Geopolitics in an ‘Age of Terror’," Africa Today,Vol.52,No.1,2005,p.53.

   (119)Gorbachev M.Perestroika,New Thinking for Our Country and the World,New York:Harper and Row,1987,pp.173-174.

   (120)参见Bobo Lo,Russian Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era:Reality,Illusion and My Thinking,New York:Palgrave Macmillan,2002。

   (121)James Barber and John Barratt,South Africa's Foreign Policy:The Search for States and Security 1945-1985,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1990,pp.341-343.

   (122)参见Edward George,The Cuban Intervention in Angola 1965-1991:From Che Guevara to Cuito Cuanavale,London:Frank Cass,2005; Michael Comerford,Angola:Biography of a Peace Process 1991-2002,Germany:Lambert Academic Publishing,2011。

   (123)正如杰拉德·普吕尼耶所指出的,萨文比成为悲剧的“福斯塔夫”,反共时期的前伙伴们都在唯恐不及地抛弃他。参见Gerard Prunier,From Genocide to Continental War:The "Congolose Conflict" and the Crisis of Contemporary Africa,London:C.Hurst,2009,p.97。

   (124)Jeffrey Record,Beating Goliath:Why Insurgencies Win,Washington,D.C.:Potomac Books,2007,p.xi.

   (125)Herman J.Cohen,Interventing in Africa:Superpower Peacemaking in a Troubled Continent,London:Antony Rowe Ltd,2000,pp.120-121.

   (126)Nicholas Sambanis,"A Review of Recent Advances and Future Directions in the Literature on Civil Wars," Defense and Peace Economics,Vol.13,No.2,2002,pp.215-243.

  

  

    进入专题: 内战     代理人战争     自主性     干预意愿     安哥拉内战  

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文章来源:《世界经济与政治》 2018年01期

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